2.the creation of space-time and gauge symmetry
origin of elements
1.origin of life
nerve system of c-elegans
<The Detail of This Chapter.pdf>
0.The Physical View of The Cosmos
2.20pc~100pc from the sun
5.the large-scale structures of cosmos
We always assume that the unknown objects obey the same physical rule which we took from known objects until it fail.
To measure the property of distant object, we have to know the distance from it to our instruments at first.
parallax triangle geometry=>the distance between the sun and the earth: 1AU~1.5E11m~2E4*radius of the earth.
=>radius of the sun~100*radius of the earth
sphere geometry + measurement on the earth=>luminosity of the sun
the movement of the earth=>mass of the sun
parallax triangle geometry based on the anniversary movement of the earth->1pc=10^5AU
2681 stars<20pc, their average interval is 1pc.
Based on the measurement data of these 2681 stars, we can get elementary understanding about star's luminescence property. Very lucky, it is simple!
(1) blackbody radiation from photosphere of stars
Because that photosphere of stars is nearly thermal equilibration, so the stable stellar radiation is approximate blackbody radiation.
For blackbody radiation, the temperature of blackbody uniquely determine intensity distribution upon the frequencies of radiation.
(2) absorption line from stellar atmosphere
the temperature of stellar photosphere: obafgkm
Integrating radiation intensity distribution on frequencies, we get a function: F(L, T, R)=0, or L=constant*R^2*T^4. where L (luminosity); T(temperature); R(radius).
<main sequence stars>
the measurement of temperature + luminosity of stars=>
All the stars that we have measured their temperature and luminosity can be obviously sorted into some different classes: most of them belong to main sequence stars, which means that their
Hertzsprung-Russell relation: temperature ~ luminosity
<the structure theory of main sequence star>
<the evolution theory of main sequence star>
SN Ia: 10Mpc~100Mpc
5.the principle of universe
in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, (1.5~3M_sun) (Silicon carbide grains)
slow neutron capture (the s-process)
in massive stars (>=10M_sun)
under explosive conditions by rapid neutron capture (the r-process) or by proton capture/photodisintegration reactions (the p-process)