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## 牛顿做的光学实验与牛顿对光的古典理解

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《光学》同样是采用欧几里得的风格：
8个定义，用来命名几何光学现象当中的可描述要素：

8条公理，用来归纳基本观测现象：

## 李鸿章为何对日犯了幼稚病？

1，在军官们都顾忌日本人的豺狼之心，希望在驰援朝鲜国王的同时力防日人的时候，李鸿章判断日本人不至于过于大胆；
2，在日本人已经开始咬人了的时候，李鸿章还寄希望于国际牵制；
...

## 日尔曼人寻找国家的历史

1,日尔曼人从18世纪开始主动构筑为一个现代国家,是因为现代国家形式,具有与现代生产力条件最适应的扩张力量和组织结构;
2,正是上面所述的内在原因,驱使世界变成现在的样子:高度生产性。
3，它的未来会是如何？

## 流形的基本概念|Basic Notions of Manifold

Basic Notions of Manifold

When we mention Euclid space, maybe it induct excess meanings. So,
we can try to construct an object that its meaning is less than
Euclid space but however, is meaningful and analyzable.

At least, we need some points, then, if we want a point is
analyzable, it must has its neighborhood, moreover, to make it
computable or realizable, let its neighborhood homeomorphism with
an open set of Euclid space.

Such points constitutes a set, then make this set is a separated
set, a Hausdorff set, we definite such a set a manifold.

The point x\in M, M is a manifold. U is a neighborhood of x, and
there is a homeomorphism \phi:U\mapsto \phi(U). then, Any such a
$(U,\phi(U))$ means a realization of any point of U: $\phi(y)$ is