4.Quantum Theory of Particles

<The Detail of This Chapter.pdf>

One of the most important things of physics is expediency.

the notion of particle is just such a kind of expediency, wave too.


At first, let's see what does the word particle means?

what is classical particle?

when we talk about a particle in classical syntax, we don't means the exist of such things like a point. It means that we can describe the object's state like that: it's position at space-time, it's momentum, it's energy, have it's determinate value, although we need a reference system at meantime.


are there classical particles at atom scale?

The discrete quantity:

the discover of electron: measurement of e/m & e of electron.

    It means that if we measure the charge of electrons, we get a discrete quantity. Then, we designate electron as a particle. This is the only reason that we name an electron a particle!


The energy of radiation:

Plank: oscillator of black body

Einstein: absorbing of radiation


The structure of atom:

Rutherford scattering experiment=>the geometry of atom

Light spectrums-->the necessity of quantization of electromagnetic field

Bohr: energy levels


The spectrum of atom:




why we use the notion of particle?

classical particle->quantum particle: change the description of the state of a physical object.

1.The way to the concept of "quantum particle":


2.How to describe a quantum object?










The End: Toward the Quantum Theory of Field.

Why relativistic wave mechanics is wrong?